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“The National Road” – Historical Marker

While this historical marker is titled, “The National Road,” it could easily be renamed “Nemacolin’s Path,” as well. This is because the trail which became known as the National Road--and at other times, Braddock Road, Cumberland Road, US Route 40, or US 68--was created by the Delaware leader Nemacolin. It went on to be the… Read Full Article

“The Warrior’s Path” – Historical Marker

The Warrior’s Path historical marker sits in Allegany County. The State Roads Commission installed the sign in 1938. The Warrior’s Path--a route utilized by diverse Native communities for trade, politics, and relocation--stretched hundreds of miles from present-day New York State to the Carolinas. Its course followed the Susquehanna River to the territory north of Harrisburg,… Read Full Article

“Monocacy National Battlefield/River”

Nearly a dozen archaeological sites related to Native peoples have been discovered on the grounds of the Monocacy National Battlefield, and many others--relevant to a number of tribal nations--have been discovered throughout the Monocacy River Valley at large. Studies suggest that the earliest inhabitants of the area resided here up to ten thousand years ago.… Read Full Article

Irvine Nature Center Native American Site

The Irvine Nature Center boasts a Native American Site dedicated to telling the stories of the First Peoples of the local area. This site was built in 2014, in close collaboration with Baltimore American Indian Center, Stevenson University, and subject matter experts. The Irvine Nature Center’s Native American Site is located in Baltimore County.  Image:… Read Full Article

Bald Friar Ford Petroglyphs

Native communities routinely utilized the area currently known as the Bald Friar Ford to wade in and cross through the Susquehanna River. The river itself is named after the Susquehannock peoples. Although it is hard to imagine now, since the flooding of the land and the construction of the Conowingo Dam beginning in 1927, this… Read Full Article

The Duality of Indigeneity Mural

Pyramid Lake Paiute artist Gregg Deal installed The Duality of Indigeneity in Baltimore, Maryland in 2015. This piece, like all of Deal’s critically acclaimed work, drew inspiration from paying homage to Indigenous lived experiences, confronting stereotypes, and critiquing representations of Indigenous peoples across popular culture and political issues. Reflecting on The Duality of Indigeneity, the… Read Full Article

East Baltimore’s Historic American Indian Reservation and the Baltimore American Indian Center

In the mid-1900’s, Baltimore emerged as an urban hub for thousands of Lumbee community members who relocated to the area following hopes of employment and economic opportunity. The Lumbee Tribe is headquartered in North Carolina, but the establishment of a Lumbee neighborhood in east Baltimore earned the area between Upper Fellos Point and Washington Hill… Read Full Article

Association on American Indian Affairs

For over 100 years, the Association on American Indian Affairs (AAIA) has served tribal communities across the United States. It is the oldest and longest-running non-profit organization dedicated to upholding tribal sovereignty and self-governance, protecting and preserving Indigenous cultures, educating public audiences on issues of importance to Native communities, and building capacity for advocacy work… Read Full Article

Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Cultural Resources Center

The Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland is one of three facilities making up the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian. This branch is specifically responsible for research surrounding the Museum’s collections. In all of its work, the Cultural Resources Center is guided by Indigenous methods, which respond to tribal communities’ needs for access… Read Full Article

Piscataway Park/Accokeek/Moyaone

Piscataway Park takes its name from the Piscataway peoples who have historically occupied the territory now known as the State of Maryland and who maintain a contemporary presence here. The Park is made up of approximately 5,000 acres oriented around Piscataway Creek and the Potomac River, in Prince George's County. Native communities have lived in… Read Full Article


Present-day Mattawoman Creek takes its name from the historic Mattawoman community that resided in villages and towns along the waterway. Nevertheless, various Indigenous groups in addition to the Mattawoman frequented this area prior to and in the immediate aftermath of European colonization. For instance, Mattawoman Creek also outlined, in conjunction with Piscataway Creek, the boundaries… Read Full Article

Port Tobacco

Indigenous communities have lived in the area now known as Port Tobacco since the Early Archaic (6000 BC) period. Captain John Smith traveled the Port Tobacco River and charted the Indigenous Potopaco/Potobac settlement during his five-week excursion through the Potomac region in the summer of 1608. Smith’s July 8, 1608 travel log indicates that he… Read Full Article

St. Ignatius Church and St. Kateri Tekakwitha Statue

St. Ignatius is the longest continually operating Catholic parish in the United States. Established in 1641, this house of worship has maintained a deep connection to local Indigenous communities and held significance for Native Catholics across North America. The Jesuit founder, Father Andrew White, lived near an Indigenous settlement at Chapel Point and spoke their… Read Full Article

Zekiah Fort and Zekiah Manor

In 1680, more than 300 Piscataway left their home in Mayone and relocated to Zekiah Fort in order to seek refuge from Susquehannock attacks. Lord Baltimore established the fort adjacent to his 8,800-acre Zekiah Manor estate, which bordered the 22-mile long Zekiah Swamp, after the Piscataway rejected proposals to migrate to Maryland’s Eastern Shore. The… Read Full Article

Choptico Indian Town

Some historians consider Choptico Manor the first Native American reservation in the United States. The 8- to 10-thousand acre territory was set aside for a handful of Indigenous groups--“the Mattapanians the Wicomocons the Patuxants the Lamasconsons the Kighahnixons and the Chopticons”--in 1651. Spearheaded by the second Lord Baltimore, Cecil Calvert, this location is also known… Read Full Article

Quomocac/Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum

Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum sit on land believed to be the former Indigenous town of Quomocac. Quomocac appears on Captain John Smith’s 1612 map of the Chesapeake, and would have been established by the Patuxent community from the Middle Woodland period (50-950 AD) until contact with Europeans. Archaeological evidence reveals that Native peoples grew… Read Full Article

Patuxent River and Jug Bay

Indigenous peoples representing various tribal communities occupied the Patuxent River and Jug Bay areas from approximately 8,000 BC until they were pushed out by colonizing forces in the mid-17th century. Nevertheless, historians have identified it as one of the final major riverways in the state to come under the control of the English. This lush… Read Full Article

Tamanend Sculpture

In 1866, the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland (Anne Arundel County) received the USS Delaware figurehead featuring Chief Tamanend of the Lenni Lenape, or Delaware, people. Tamanend rose to national prominence after leading peaceful relations with William Penn. The ship had been purposefully sunk to prevent Confederate soldiers from acquiring it during the… Read Full Article

Kent Island

Settled in 1631, Kent Island was the third oldest English settlement in the United States, following Jamestown, Virginia and Plymouth, Massachusetts which were established in 1607 and 1620, respectively. The land was occupied for approximately 12,000 years prior and it was the homeland of the historic Matapeake community at the time of colonization. The Matapeake… Read Full Article

Cicone Village at Handsell House

The Handsell Historic Site pays tribute to the Nanticoke and Chicone peoples upon whose lands the Handsell House now sits. Located in what is now Dorchester County, these lands were formerly incorporated into a Native American reservation. The State of Maryland agreed to use the lands for this purpose in 1720, but in 1768, less… Read Full Article

Askiminokonson Indian Town

By 1671, Askiminokonson proved to be the largest Native American town in what is now the State of Maryland. Indigenous peoples from various communities, including the Pocomoke, Annamessex, Manokin, Nasswattex, and Acquintica, lived here. Mention of Askiminokonson appears multiple times in the “Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1667-1687/8” archival record, particularly in relation to… Read Full Article

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